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Specific Justice Systems

Juvenile Justice

This section offers an overview of the juvenile justice system as it pertains to the administration of justice and issues of importance to victims of crime. Included within the presentation and discussion is information concerning the differences between the juvenile and criminal justice systems. This section also addresses victims' rights within the juvenile justice system and how victim advocates and juvenile justice agencies can develop programs and services that assist victims of juvenile offenders.

Learning objectives include:

  • An historical overview of the juvenile justice system.
  • Juvenile justice procedures.
  • Victims' rights within the juvenile justice system.
  • Initiatives that involve vicitm/offender programming and creative dispositions that incorporate raising victim awareness among juvenile offenders.
  • Victim assistance services in juvenile court.
  • Promising practices.

 Federal Justice

Since the passage of the Victim and Witness Protection Act of 1982, there has been considerable emphasis placed on the implementation of victims' rights and provision of quality victim services at the federal level. The 1995 Attorney General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance, as well as the passage of six major federal laws affecting victims, define the scope of victims' rights and services for victims of federal crimes. Efforts at the federal level to coordinate the delivery of services to victims have produced collaborative initiatives that improve victims' rights and services.

Learning objectives include:

  • Major laws affecting federal victims of crime.
  • The 2005 Attorney General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance.
  • The Office for Victims of Crime response to coordinate services and assistance to federal crime victims.
  • The availability and coordination of victims' rights and services at the federal level.
  • Significant federal initiatives that have strengthened victims' rights and services at the federal level.

Military Justice

Members of the U.S. military are subject to the same rules of behavior as the civilian population, but as defenders of the nation, they may be ordered to commit acts that are considered criminal in the nonmilitary community. Therefore, they require a justice system that is tailored to their unique tasks and responsibilities. This chapter provides a brief overview of the military justice system--its structure, organization, and procedures for the charging, prosecution, and punishment of offenses. It explains the Victim-Witness Assistance Programs that provide victims and witnesses of military crime with guidance through the justice system. It outlines related programs designed to assist military families in coping with child and spousal abuse and to assist military personnel in coping with sexual harassment, sexual assault, and job discrimination. Finally this chapter discusses the measures the federal government has authorized to compensate victims of military crime and the use of negotiated restitution as a condition for pretrial agreements and parole.

Learning objectives include:

  • How offenses are charged, disposed, and punished in the military justice system, including nonjudicial punishments, punitive discharges, and appeals.
  • The components of the military's Bill of Rights for victims of crime.
  • The types of assistance provided to victims of crime in the military through the Family Advocacy Program, the Equal Opportunity Program,and the Navy's Sexual Assault Victim Intervention Program.
  • Laws governing federal compensation for the victimization by military personnel of military dependents and of foreign inhabitants in a foreign country.